# Modeling Cardinality

### Data Types and Values

Given that our values are all bits on some level, there is no basic fixed size data type that has an unlimited range of values. Even the floating point types have finite range, although it is represented and handled differently than that of the whole number types.

### Standard Types

For a 64-bit data type, there are \( 64^2 \) different distinct values that can be represented. With the usual twos-complement representation for signed numbers, this ends up being every value between [-9223372036854775808, 9223372036854775807], inclusive.

The signed 64-bit integer is in focus here for a couple of reasons:

• This is the most common machine type that is used in current RNGs
• This is the highest width type which is commonly supported throughout modern architectures from the memory bus all the way to the registers in the CPU.

These two go hand-in-hand of course. It means that there is much to draw from in terms of inspiration and examples for building efficient functions.

There will be other types in use. It is possible to use objects in addition to basic types, but for now we will focus on the signed long type for the purposes of explanation.

### Simulating Cardinality

We assume that whether you are using a 64-bit or 32-bit signed number, that you can represent a high enough cardinality of values to have a useful dataset, in most cases. There are ways of having higher cardinality when needed, but they are less efficient at runtime.

When applying a hash function to counting numbers, the results will generally vary within the total range of values that you can represent.

For example, applying the murmur3f hash to the long values 0..3 will yield values ranging from -8048510690352527683 to 6292367497774912474. Such large values are not immediately useful for enumerating or simulating identifiers in realistically bounded datasets. However, the wide dispersion achieved such a hash function is useful to us, so how do we use it at a more reasonable range of values for typical datasets?

Enter modulus arithmetic. With such wide ranges in values, it is reasonable to down-sample the hashed value into the range simply by dividing the value by the range size we want, taking only the remainder.

For example, the first 5 values produced by such a method with a modulo of 50 and absolute value are:

```#zoom:0.75
#direction:right
#.input: fill=#FFFFFF visual=frame
#.function: fill=#FFFFFF visual=sender
#.userid: fill=#E2D58B visual=frame
#.firstname: fill=#44BBA4 visual=frame
[<input> 0] ->[<function>Hash(0)]
[<function>Hash(0)] -> [<input> 39]
[<input> 39] -> [<function>Abs(39)]
[<function>Abs(39)] -> [<firstname>result: 39]
[<input> 1] ->[<function>Hash(1)]
[<function>Hash(1)] -> [<input> 24]
[<input> 24] -> [<function>Abs(24)]
[<function>Abs(24)] -> [<firstname>result: 24]
[<input> 2] ->[<function>Hash(2)]
[<function>Hash(2)] -> [<input> -43]
[<input> -43] -> [<function>Abs(-43)]
[<function>Abs(-43)] -> [<firstname>result: 43]
[<input> 3] ->[<function>Hash(3)]
[<function>Hash(3)] -> [<input> -33]
[<input> -33] -> [<function>Abs(-33)]
[<function>Abs(-33)] -> [<firstname>result: 33]
[<input> 4] ->[<function>Hash(4)]
[<function>Hash(4)] -> [<input> 21]
[<input> 21] -> [<function>Abs(21)]
[<function>Abs(21)] -> [<firstname>result: 21]
```

We use absolute value in addition to modulo, because signed results allow our range to span twice as many unique values as our intended output range.

The next five values are 0, 6, 22, 6, and 2.

This shows that we have a single duplicate (6), which is quite expected, according to the odds. In fact, the probability of seeing a single duplicate goes over 50% as you go to 9 samples. Over very large numbers of samples, the effect evens out quite well. In fact, it is easy to show that the quality of samples produced in this way is directly dependent upon the quality of the underlying hash function as one would expect.

Using this method, we are able to simulate very large ranges and very large numbers of data samples. Furthermore, since the function pipeline is purely functional with no mutable state, we know that we can use the mapping from the input value to the output as a map that does not change. In other words, if we take the input value as an enumeration of samples, or coordinates of the output data, we have a fixed dataset with respect to the samples we choose to observe. In this sense, applying the function is akin to taking samples of data from a fixed coordinate space.

### To Be Continued…

There is more to come on this section in the future. Stay tuned.